Archive | September 2011

Pentagon And CIA involved in Rabbani’s assassination


Ironically, the assassination removed a friend of Pakistan and served the interests of Pentagon, CIA and their Afghan allies. While avoiding confrontation, Pakistan needs to speak up and not let disinformation dominate the air waves. Here are key points that weaken American propaganda.
There is a reason why the United States has ignored the cold-blooded murder of ex-Afghan president Burhanuddin Rabbani and focused all its energies instead on        
the attacks on US embassy and NATO offices in Kabul.
The assassination neatly fits in with the interests of three parties: US military, CIA and their Afghan warlord allies. It might well be the first planned murder of a senior Afghan government official opposed to US meddling in Afghan reconciliation.
This is the work of the same American lobbies opposed to President Barrack Obama’s Afghan pullout plan and his defense budget cuts.
There is no credible confirmation yet on who exactly eliminated the man who served as President Karzai’s key manager of reconciliation with Afghan Taliban and someone who recently converted into a friend of Pakistan.
After the assassination, the United States military and intelligence tried to create a wedge between Kabul and Islamabad by invoking an alleged Pakistani hand. But this was effectively countered by Pakistani officials, who have become accustomed to American games. Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gilani’s quick dash to Kabul to offer condolences and support and later army chief’s cool and calm response to Leon Panetta and Mike Mullen’s anti-Pakistan outbursts helped counter the attempt to poison Karzai’s newfound understandings with Islamabad.
Rabbani wanted to see Afghan Taliban sharing power and entering government. He was suspected by of being a closet Taliban sympathizer who was hatching conspiracies with Karzai and Pakistan behind the back of the United States and its Afghan warlord allies. The assassination took care of this emerging threat. Blaming Pakistan for his murder – and for other major attacks – built pressure on Karzai to sever ties with Islamabad. Such a move would have destroyed Pakistan’s strategy of working closely with Karzai – and Rabbani – to reach a deal with Afghan Taliban and re-empower the Pashtuns despite American opposition.
In short, it is Pakistan that should be raising questions about the mystery of who killed Mr. Rabbani and not vice versa, especially when the list of suspects and motives points toward foreign forces and their local proxies.
The only party that was well prepared to make the most out of Rabbani’s murder was Pentagon and CIA. Both of them moved quickly on two fronts: domestic politics and Pakistan. Domestically, the Panetta-Mullen duo organized a joint anti-Pakistan briefing on 22 September and later Mullen appeared before US Senate armed services committee.
The domestic objectives of Pentagon and CIA from this anti-Pakistan campaign are:

  1. Save the skin of US military and intelligence officials responsible for security lapses in Afghanistan
  2. Dodge accountability
  3. Send a message that major cuts in defense budget won’t be acceptable, and
  4. Underline that Afghanistan continues to require foreign military and intelligence presence

Afghanistan today is CIA’s largest base of operations anywhere in the world. The agency is loath to abandon an outpost that gives it direct access to the backyards of several strategic nations at once: Iran, Pakistan, China and Russia. No sane strategist would let go of such an opportunity. Mr. Rabbani’s peace mission may not have shown initial signs of success but it had already upset the policy direction favored by US military, intelligence and their Afghan warlord allies. India was also skeptical about the Rabbani-Karzai plans. Ending the isolation of the Pakhtun and incorporating them into Afghan power structure has never appealed to these parties. Another common denominator among these parties is their expressed anti-Pakistanism.
In fact, whoever assassinated Mr. Rabbani was also aiming at ensuring that Afghanistan remains an anti-Pakistan outpost. Islamabad has advocated ending the policy of isolating the Pashtun and worked hard to convince Mr. Karzai that friendship and respect for the legitimate interests of both Afghanistan and Pakistan is in both nations’ interests and would benefit stability in the region. Mr. Rabbani had made several overtures to Pakistan in recent months. In January he used the platform of Geo television to address Pakistanis. He spoke in Urdu as a special gesture.
PAKISTAN’S RESPONSE
Pakistan is pursuing the right policy with regards to American provocations. What is lacking in this policy is the media edge. For example, several Pakistani officials have sent strong direct and indirect messages to Washington recently. The list includes the Prime Minister, Foreign Minister, Interior Minister, Chief of Army Staff and ISI director. But Pakistan faces a sweeping campaign of demonizing the country. This American policy continues since 2004. Both political and military establishments have failed to counter the American narrative. The danger in the massive American campaign is that it paves the way for stronger future actions and limits global support for Pakistani positions. An example is the intense propagandist reporting on Iraq’s WMD in 2002 which helped Washington invade that country on fake evidence.
We need to become more overt in questioning US positions with regards to several key issues. This includes:

  1. CIA support and safe havens for terrorists meddling in Balochistan
  2. TTP’s easy access to US weapons
  3. The freedom of movement granted to anti-Pakistan terrorists inside US-controlled Afghan territory
  4. The intense demonization of Pakistan primarily and largely in mainstream US media as part of an undeclared American policy
  5. Transforming US-controlled Afghanistan into a hub for anti-Pakistan forces in the region
  6. Meddling in Pakistani politics
  7. Buying out Pakistani media and attempts to plant mouthpieces in print and TV.

We should also review the argument that we can’t abandon America’s war on terror to ensure US aid flow and to fight domestic extremism. Washington will keep Pakistan afloat but will continue to drag its feet on key strategic issues such as energy generation and access for Pakistani textiles to US market. The US won’t sign any written agreements on CIA’s illegal activities inside Pakistani territory and airspace. As for domestic extremism, apart from TTP terror group that is linked to the Afghan mess, all other forms of domestic extremism are an internal Pakistani issue and should be delinked from America’s Afghan war.
All of this strengthens the argument that we need to declare an end to our direct participation in America’s Afghan war, known as the war on terror. Bilateral Pak-US cooperation to find an end solution in Afghanistan can continue. The move will give us a chance to redesign our relations with Washington and get rid of the verbal commitments made earlier.

US military and CIA

There are some strange developments that occurred after the assassination of former Afghan president Burhanuddin Rabbani that should not escape our the attention. The post-assassination dynamic has served the interests of lobbies opposed to President Barrack Obama’s plan to pull the plug on an endless war. There is also no credible confirmation yet on who exactly eliminated President Karzai’s key manager of reconciliation with Afghan Taliban and a man who recently converted into a friend of Pakistan.

The United States military and intelligence took the lead in seizing the assassination to create a wedge between Kabul and Islamabad by invoking an alleged Pakistani hand in the assassination. Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gilani’s quick dash to Kabul to offer condolences and support and later the army chief’s cool and calm response to Leon Panetta and Mike Mullen’s anti-Pakistan outbursts helped counter the attempt to poison Karzai’s newfound understandings with Islamabad.

But demonising Pakistan is not the only mileage that the Pentagon and the CIA appear to have drawn from Rabbani’s removal from the scene. The US military and intelligence took the lead in promoting the Pakistan conspiracy theory and pushing the US government and media into a corner on this count. Evidence mounts, culminating with the Panetta-Mullen duo’s joint anti-Pakistan press briefing on 22 September, indicating that the Pentagon and the CIA rushed to make the most out of the assassination. The briefing was used to save the skin of US military and intelligence officials responsible for security lapses in Afghanistan, dodge accountability, send a message that major cuts in defense budget won’t be acceptable, and underline that Afghanistan continues to require foreign military and intelligence presence.

Afghanistan today is the CIA’s largest base of operations anywhere in the world. The agency is loath to abandon an outpost that gives it direct access to the backyards of several strategic nations at once: Iran, Pakistan, China and Russia. Rabbani’s peace mission may not have shown initial signs of success but it had already upset the policy direction favored by US military, intelligence and their Afghan warlord allies. India was also skeptical about the Rabbani-Karzai plans. Ending the isolation and punishment of the Pakhtun and incorporating them into Afghan power structure has never appealed to these parties. Another common denominator among these parties is their expressed anti-Pakistanism.

In fact, whoever assassinated Rabbani was also aiming at ensuring that Afghanistan remains an anti-Pakistan outpost. Islamabad has advocated ending the policy of isolating the Pashtun and worked hard to convince Mr. Karzai that friendship and respect for the legitimate interests of both Afghanistan and Pakistan is in both nations’ interests and would benefit stability in the region. Rabbani had made several overtures to Pakistan in recent months. In January he used the platform of Geo television to address Pakistanis. He spoke in Urdu as a special gesture.

Pakistan is pursuing the right policy with regards to American provocations. What is lacking in this policy is the media edge. For example, several Pakistani officials have sent strong direct and indirect messages to Washington recently. But Pakistan faces a sweeping campaign of demonising. Both political and military establishments have failed to counter the American narrative. The danger in the massive American campaign is that it paves the way for stronger future actions and limits global support. An example is the intense propagandist reporting on Iraq’s WMD in 2002 which helped Washington invade that country on fake evidence.

We need to become more overt in questioning US positions with regards to several key issues. This includes CIA support and safe havens for militants meddling in Balochistan, TTP’s easy access to US weapons, and the freedom of movement granted to anti-Pakistan terrorists inside US-controlled Afghan territory.

We should also review the argument that we can’t abandon America’s war on terror to ensure US aid flow and to fight domestic extremism. Washington will keep Pakistan afloat but will continue to drag its feet on key strategic issues such as energy generation and access for Pakistani textiles to US market. The US won’t sign any written agreements on the CIA’s illegal activities inside Pakistani territory and airspace. As for domestic extremism, apart from TTP terror group that is linked to the Afghan mess, all other forms of domestic extremism are an internal Pakistani issue and should be delinked from America’s Afghan war.

All of this strengthens the argument that we need to declare an end to our direct participation in America’s Afghan war, known as the war on terror. Bilateral Pak-US cooperation to find an end solution in Afghanistan can continue. The move will give us a chance to redesign our relations with Washington and get rid of the verbal commitments made earlier.

Ahmed Quraishi
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Occupy WallStreet NYC Police Brutally Beat Peaceful Protestors


This video captures NYC police acting like pit bulls, attacking and beating the hell out of non-violent protestors who were not trying to resist and were actually trying to surrender.Many here do not have the know how to get these videos out to the public who needs to see how the corporate controlled security forces are treating there fellow Americans. This video captures a glimpse of what really is happening on the ground at the Occupy Wall Street Protest. click below for all videos                   Read More…

Pictures Of Police Brutality From Occupy Wall Street Protests


Over 80 people were arrested in downtown Manhattan during a protest against Wall Street on Saturday. Protestors are complaining that police used excessive force. Judge for yourself.                               Click below for more Photos

alexanderhiggins

U.S. Continues to Back Afghan Warlord Linked to 2006 Massacre and Torture of Prisoners


New revelations about a U.S.-backed warlord in Afghanistan are raising questions about whether the United States has violated its own laws in its aim to defeat the Taliban. The Atlantic magazine reports the United States, under both former President George W. Bush and President Obama, has actively supported the police commander in Kandahar, General Abdul Raziq, despite knowing of his involvement not just in corruption and drug smuggling, but also in major human rights abuses including killings and torture. Raziq has been a key figure in the U.S. strategy of supporting Afghan warlords in order to weaken the Taliban, working closely with U.S. special forces. He was promoted to head the police in Kandahar earlier this year after playing a key role in the U.S.-backed assault on the Taliban one year ago. The allegations against Raziq include responsibility for the torture of two teenage boys and the killing of 15 people in 2006. According to an investigation by our guest, Matthieu Aikins, for The Atlantic, the United States has continued supporting Raziq despite having been aware “of credible allegations that Raziq and his men participated in a cold-blooded massacre of civilians.”

Pakistani tribesmen threaten US with holy war


Hundreds of Pakistani tribesmen on Tuesday threatened the United States with holy war, lashing out at demands for action against Al-Qaeda-linked Haqqani extremists based in Pakistan.

There is growing unease in Pakistan about US pressure to take on the Haqqani network or face the consequences, with the military saying it is too             Read More…

Pak Army in pictures



Turk Commandos inspecting weapons during joint
 Exercise being conducted at Cherat Pakistan


Naval Commando doing Firing Exercise in Water


SSG Commando Making Tea during Exercise


Chinese Kid with PAF Fighter Pilot

Senator: Consider military action against Pakistan, Haqqani !


While the United States, ever more strident, is ratcheting up pressure on Pakistan to snap its “ties with the Haqqani network”, the group’s chief Sirajuddin Haqqani on Friday warned Washington against any military adventure in the North Waziristan tribal agency.The Haqqanis belong to Zadran tribe, which are mostly based in Paktia and Khost provinces of Eastern Afghanistan.Speaking to Reuters by satellite phone from an undisclosed location, Sirajuddin said he’d look forward to a US ground attack in North Waziristan. “The United States will suffer more losses [in North Waziristan] than they did in Afghanistan,” he said. ReadMore…

A Republican on the Senate Armed Services Committee said Sunday that the U.S. should consider military action against Pakistan if it continues to support terrorist attacks against American troops in Afghanistan.”The         Read More…

Pakistan response to adventurism,Rising anger against U.S. lost to China


“If many of your goals are not achieved, you do not make someone a scapegoat,” she said Pakistan cannot be held responsible for the security of US, Nato or Isaf forces in Afghanistan.While there have been terrorist attacks in Kabul and Wardak, there have also been numerous attacks on Pakistan launched from sanctuaries and safe havens in Nuristan and Kunar in Afghanistan.
Rising anger against U.S American verbal onslaught against ‘ISI’s support of the
Haqqani group of militants’ – a thesis of deliberate mischief cooked up by the US – which are supposed to be targeting US soldiers in Afghanistan from their hideouts in North Waziristan.MSNBC she plainly said that the US officials, in the midst of the war on terror, “want to create scapegoats because success as we perceived it may not be coming”.US defeat and search for a scapegoat with the reality on the ground in Afghanistan: over 80 percent of the country’s territory remains in the hands of the resistance, even after 10 years of war waged by the world’s best equipped and best trained force the Americans could manage to muster.The nation is expecting the politico-military leadership to come up with a firm resolve to defend the sovereignty and integrity of country whatever the cost. ReadMore…
Haqqani network created by CIAInterior Minister Rehman Malik has said that the Haqqani network was created and trained by the United States CIA.US ground attack in North Waziristan. “The United States will suffer more losses [in North Waziristan] than they did in Afghanistan,” he said.No compromise will be made on Pakistan’s sovereignty as Pakistan suffered a loss of $68 billion in the fight against terrorism. ReadMore…
All stand united for national defence
Mounting threat of US attack on Pakistani soil after Islamabad’s blunt refusal to blindly implement Washington’s orders against the Haqqanis has generated a national fervour for country’s defence, swinging Prime Minister Gilani into action. ReadMore…
Befitting response to adventurism
Expressing deep concern over senior US officials’ statements, top brass of Pakistan Army Sunday rejected allegations of Islamabad’s links with Haqqani Network and resolved to give befitting response to any effort to breach country sovereignty. ReadMore…

Govt mobilising political leadership for united standThe government is mobilising the national political leadership to take a united stand in the face of US pressure and serious allegations levelled against the armed forces and the ISI. ReadMore…

U.S. lost to China – expertInterview with Ahmed Quraishi senior research fellow at an Independent Pakistani think-tank Project Pakistan 21.Pakistani-US relations, I have an impression that as US is laying all the blame on Pakistan for its failures in Afghanistan, it is hardly convincing and it also gives me an impression that US positions in the region are becoming increasingly shaky.There is a clear understanding right now that the Americans are desperate in Afghanistan and they are very embarrassed after a series of security lapses in Afghanistan, when you have an attack on both the NATO headquarters and the US Embassy at the same day and a few days earlier you have a series of assassinations of senior Afghan officials who were allied with the US military in Afghanistan ‑ this is a huge security lapse and it is very interesting to see how the US government and the US military, and also the US intelligence community have to lead forward and sort of undercut any potential questioning within the United States ‑ whether in the US Congress or in the US media ‑ about the performing of US military in Afghanistan and lay the entire blame at Pakistan’s door. It is very much clear for the Pakistani officials that the American military and intelligence in Afghanistan is trying to use this series of attacks, these lapses which are a direct result of whatever the various Afghan militant groups or resistance groups – whatever you want to call them ‑ are doing in Afghanistan. The Americans are using all of this to try to settle scores with the Pakistani government and the Pakistani military especially, and the ISI which is the Pakistani intelligence service. Of course, the Afghans have a problem issue for the Americans, but somehow the US officials are trying to create an impression that all of their problems in Afghanistan are the result of the Haqqani group and once this group is eliminated Afghanistan would somehow turn into a paradise which is an oversimplification and I am very much surprised to see some very credible people in the US public discourse ‑ whether in the media or on the think tank ‑ no one of them is really questioning the certainty of the US military and of the CIA about the Haqqani group; it seems that the Americans are exaggerating the impact and effect of the Haqqani group. I would like just to share with you an incident that occurred last week when the US ambassador here, in Pakistan, Mr. Cameron Munter, met a senior Pakistani official and again repeated these accusations that there is a proxy connection between the Haqqani group and the Pakistani ISI and the Pakistani official – and this was reported a couple of days ago in the Pakistani media – the Pakistani official responded to the US ambassador by saying: “If we assume and if we believe for a second that the Haqqani group is really responsible for all of the troubles that your military is facing in Afghanistan, I have a simple question and the question is this – if the Haqqani group is based inside the Pakistani territory, there is a lot of distance between the Pakistani territory and Kabul where all of these attacks and assassinations have taken place. So, my question is: when these terrorists were moving from the Pakistani border to Kabul, where was NATO, where was the US military, where were the Afghan National Police, where was the Afghan National Army – where are all these people, where is CIA, where are other allied intelligence agencies working with the coalition forces in Afghanistan?” So, there is a huge security lapse over there and it just appears that somehow the US government is trying to shift the blame. Now, the Pakistani government somehow has been trying ever since the accusations started coming against the American side, it has trying to resolve this matter quietly, but firmly, in private. But as of yesterday we are seeing now the government officials, the Pakistani foreign ministry and the Pakistani military openly saying that we do not consider whatever the Americans are saying is incontestable, we do not even have evidence and it would be better for the American side to present any evidence that would show – number one, that the Haqqani group is actually on Pakistani soil, and number two, that there is a connection actually between the recent attacks in Kabul, the major, the huge, the embarrassing security lapses in Kabul, a connection between them and the Haqqani network as well because it seems to us that the Americans are trying to use this opportunity, these attacks to put more pressure on the Pakistani government. There is one issue between Pakistan and the United States which never is addressed openly or publicly by US officials and that is visas for CIA agents – the real contention between Pakistan and the United States is actually the question of giving visas to CIA agents – Pakistan does not want to do that, Pakistan unfortunately has been doing that during ten years of former president Pervez Musharraf and there was no written understanding on that – the agents just simply kept coming and when the issue became problematic a year or a couple of years ago, the Pakistani government and the Pakistani military restricted issuing such visas to CIA agents who normally come carrying diplomatic passports, so they are basically pretending to be diplomats posed to their embassies and various consulates when they are actually agents, working without the knowledge of the Pakistani government. This is the real issue and the entire pressure why the Americans are upset, why they are holding the military assistance throughout the country is basically this – they want to return to whatever arrangements were five years ago, but that is no longer possible. The Pakistani interests and policy direction are quietly changing, there is a growing realization – of course, the Americans call it anti-Americanism, but I do not think it is anti-Americanism, I think this is a misleading term the American officials use normally to put their counterparts on the defensive. It is not anti-Americanism; it is very simply that there is a growing realization in Islamabad that over the past eight years we have supported the Americans, at our own expense sometimes, but we have not seen in return a real appreciation from the American side. Of course, the US government keeps repeating that we are giving billions of dollars in aid, much of this actually is not even aid, in fact, anything between 50 to 80 percent of that money was actually reimbursement for using Pakistani facilities and so forth in American war in Afghanistan. Of course, the Pakistanis believe that for the kind of support we are giving the Americans over the eight years we did not receive at least not money – it is not a question of money, it is a question of appreciating Pakistan’s goal and strategic interest. If there are two allies and they are working on a similar, on a single issue, both countries need to respect the interest of each other: the Americans are not doing that, they think the Pakistani government, the Pakistani military need to follow whatever policy lines given by Washington without questions asked – that is not possible; Pakistan has its own interest and obviously in recent months those interests have been diverging more and more and they will not end anytime soon, but the Americans have begun to appreciate the fact that this is a country that has its own interest and if the Americans want cooperation with Pakistan, they would also have to respect the Pakistani interests. You cannot send diplomats, CIA agents disguised as diplomats and allow them free roaming and operation facilities in Pakistan and you cannot do whatever you want in a country that is a neighbor to Pakistan without consulting at all those people who are supposed to be your allies.
From what I have been reading and from what I have been hearing from you I get an impression that the frustration with the current US policy in Pakistan is really high and at the same time I know very well that the US has always been competing for Pakistan with China. So, is US losing to China in the region?
I think the United States has already lost to China quite a long time back. I can give you a very simple example: the current situation of flash floods in Pakistan this year and last year – the Americans have stepped forward with aid; in fact last year they did a lot, they are not doing the same, but they did a lot last year. So did the Chinese, and the Saudis, and the Turks, and others, but the Pakistani public opinion actually highlighted more what, for example, the Turks, and the Saudis, and the Iranians, and the Chinese specially have done, more than highlighting what the Americans have been doing and in last year the United States initially was reluctant to intervene but later they did send helicopters and that was very helpful during the floods to save people in distant areas. Then there was not really much appreciation for that in the public, mainly because of the other issues. They did deserve appreciation for that, they did send helicopters – no one can deny that. They really became frustrated, the US diplomats here, and quite later, I think, maybe two or three months after they started operation ‑ they were very frustrated, they were not receiving the kind of media attention they thought they deserved, so we saw the US ambassador personally visiting newspaper newsrooms and distributing photographs, and videos, and so forth. This is one example that gives you the answer to your question: despite several positive things that the Americans have been doing in Pakistan, they do not receive any appreciation because they already have lost the battle for people’s minds and hearts.

Chinese Vice PM due in Capital todayAgainst the back-drop of deteriorating Pak-US relations, Chinese Vice Prime Minister Hui Liangyu would be arriving here today (Monday) on a two-day official visit to Pakistan. During the two days, he would meet senior military and political leadership of Pakistan and would discuss matters related to regional security, recent spate of US allegations, bilateral relations and other matters of mutual interest. Sources told Online that during his trip he would give an important message to the Pakistani military and political leaders on the behalf of Chinese leadership.
India Wishes to Strike Pakistan Before US Exits from Afghanistan India is instrumental in fomenting terrorism in Pakistan from Afghan soil. While Pakistan has suffered the most on account of occupation of Afghanistan by foreign troops and is the most affected country, Indian leaders are wailing that surge of violent extremism in Pakistan is affecting India and rest of the world. It is secretly supporting Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and Asian Tigers and now a new outfit named Khurasan in North Waziristan, Baloch rebel groups BLA, BLF and BRA in Balochistan. It had also been assisting TNSM under Fazlullah in Swat. Runaway leaders of TTP and TNSM based in Kunar and Nuristan are provided assistance by RAW and RAAM. ReadMore…

India Wishes to Strike Pakistan Before US Exits from Afghanistan


Whereas Pakistan is the next door neighbor of landlocked Afghanistan, which is dependent upon Pakistan land routes and Karachi port for its imports and exports, Pakistan has never tried to exploit its vulnerability or to blackmail it. India, which doesn’t share                Read More…

China delivers jolt to U.S & Saudi warn US & Africom Welcome China Role


Sets up collision course over issue of Palestinian statehood.In a further jolt to U.S. influence in the Middle East, China is expected to vote in favor of Palestinian statehood when the 66th United Nations General Assembly takes up the issue next month, according to Joseph Farah’s G2 Bulletin.The United States would lose Saudi Arabia as an ally if it blocks the Palestinian bid for statehood at the United Nations.Western powers are worried that they are losing influence in the resource-rich continent.Chinese President        
Hu Jintao told Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas in an exchange of notes last        
week that Beijing has “always supported the legitimate rights of the Palestinian people to establish an independent state” in areas such as the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and east Jerusalem.
The exchange of letters between Hu and Abbas comes as the Palestinian president launches a major diplomatic offensive to win international recognition of an independent Palestinian state.
Abbas, in effect, has given up on the U.S. position of first holding bilateral talks with Israel to reach a solution prior to going to the U.N.
The course adjustment followed Israel’s resumption of settlement construction in the West Bank, which the Palestinians want as part of their new state.
While China’s stance is no surprise, it further complicates U.S.-China relations at a time when the U.S. position in the Middle East has eroded.
China also is flexing its influence elsewhere and has raised challenges to U.S. military presence in East Asia.
Beijing has become a “lender of last resort” to the U.S. to the tune of trillions. It holds more than $3 trillion in foreign reserves, mostly in U.S. bonds.
China also has begun to assert itself and challenge U.S. standing in Africa and in Latin American, the backyard of the U.S.
The latest challenge from Beijing in the Middle East is to fill a “void of influence” as Chinese interests have expanded greatly there in recent years.

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